Dr William Hartley

Biography 

Senior Lecturer in Soil Science.

Professional membership

  • Member of the Royal Society of Chemistry (MRSC)
  • Member of the British Society of Soil Science (M.I. Soil Sci.)

Will has led a number of multidisciplinary research projects to successful completion during postdoctoral positions focusing on soil health, contamination and rehabilitation. He was a senior lecturer in Soil and Environmental Sciences at Harper Adams University from 2013 to 2022. He subsequently worked for the Environment Agency in their Groundwater, Hydrology and Contaminated Land team before starting his post as Senior Lecturer in Soil Science at the RAU. He has extensive experience of contaminated land site restoration, contaminant fate and mobility in soils and sediments. Management and design of research projects in remediation of contaminated brownfield land and agricultural land restoration. Development of remediation strategies for soft end-use sites and experience of Phase 1 risk assessments, identifying pollutant linkages, unacceptable risks and subsequent intrusive surveys of soil, sediments and surface waters. His research has led to identifying problems applying organic amendments on brownfield land contaminated with arsenic and limitations of using biochar in agricultural soils.  He has extensive research experience focusing on bauxite residue remediation in China and arsenic uptake in rice.

He has collaborated on various scientific research projects with external companies including United Utilities (discolouration and compliance failures in drinking water), Peel Holdings and Celtic Technologies Ltd (Canal silt remediation and engineering works) and the Ecological Restoration Consultancy (brownfield site assessments).

  • Soil Biophysics
  • Soil Health
  • Soil Chemistry
  • Contaminated Land
  • Organic Amendments

Research experience

  • Fate and use of metal nanoparticles in agricultural soils (Funded by the RSC)
  • Restoration of bauxite residue disposal areas (Collaborative research with Central South University, Changsha, China)
  • Arsenic uptake in rice (Collaborative research with Central South University, Changsha, China)
  • Biochar application to improve carbon sequestration in degraded agricultural soils.
  • Chemical speciation of Fe, Mn, As and Cr in soils and sediments (Funded by United Utilities)
  • Remediation of arsenic and heavy metal contaminated UK brownfield sites: effects of inorganic and organic amendments on metal chemistry and mobility.  
  • Teaching at RAU and Qingdao Agricultural University (QAU), China
  • RAU Masters teaching: Managing Global Soils in a Changing Climate
  • QAU teaching includes Crop Production and Landscape Conservation

 

Orcid ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9135-3984

Publications

  • W. Hartley, P. Riby, M. Marmiroli. Fate of copper and silver nanoparticles in agricultural soil and their effects on soil aggregation and crop growth. In prep.
  • W. Ke, C. Li, F. Zhu, X. Luo, X. Li, C. Wu, W. Hartley, S. Xue. The assembly process and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbial communities at a lead smelting site. Science of The Total Environment. 2023. 894. 164932.
  • W. Ke, C. Li, F. Zhu, X. Luo, J. Feng, X. Li, Y. Jiang, C. Wu, W. Hartley, S. Xue.  Effect of potentially toxic elements on soil multifunctionality at a lead smelting site. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2023. 454. 131525.
  • Q. Zheng, S. Tu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, W. Hartley, B. Ye, L. Ren, J. Xiong, W. Tan, A. Kappler, J. Hou. Micropore sites in ferrihydrite are responsible for its higher affinity towards As(III) relative to As(V). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2023. 348. 27-40.
  • M. Marmiroli, F. Mussi, V. Gallo, A. Gianoncelli, W. Hartley, N. Marmiroli.  Combination of Biochemical, Molecular, and Synchrotron-Radiation-Based Techniques to Study the Effects of Silicon in Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.). International Journal of Molecular Sciences.  2022. 23. 15837.
  • Y. Guo, Y. Ye, F. Zhu, R. Xue, X. Zhang, M. Zhu, W. Hartley, L.Guo, S. Xue.  Improvements on physical conditions of bauxite residue following application of organic materials. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2022. 116. 198-208.
  • Y. Wu, Y. Jiang, J. Jiang, L. Chen, X. Qin, W. Hartley, S. Xue. Conversion of alkaline characteristics of bauxite residue by mechanical activated pretreatment: Implications for its dealkalization.  Journal of Environmental Management. 2022. 305. 114446.
  • S. Xue, Z. Liu, J. Fan, R. Xue, Y. Guo, W. Chen, W. Hartley, F. Zhu. Insights into variations on dissolved organic matter of bauxite residue during soil-formation processes following 2-year column simulation. Environmental Pollution. 2022. 292. 118326.
  • J. K. Mhango, I. G. Grove, W. Hartley, E. W. Harris, J. M. Monaghan. Applying colour-based feature extraction and transfer learning to develop a high throughput inference system for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) stems with images from unmanned aerial vehicles after canopy consolidation. Precision Agriculture. 2021. 23. 643-669.
  • Y. Wu, X. Li, J. Jiang, W. Hartley, F. Zhu, S. Xue. Integrating column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling to predict the long-term alkaline stability during erosion process for gypsum amended bauxite residue. Journal of Environmental Management. 2021. 289. 112479.
  • C. Zhou, W. Pan, Q. Peng, Y. Chen, T. Zhou, C. Wu, W. Hartley, J. Li, M. Xu, C. Liu, P. Li, L. Rao, Q. Wang. Characteristics of Metabolites by Seed-Specific Inhibition of FAD2 in Brassica napus L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021. 69. 5452-5462.
  • S. Xue, N. Huang, J. Fan, Z. Liu, Y. Ye, Y. He, W. Hartley, F. Zhu. Evaluation of aggregate formation, stability and pore characteristics of bauxite residue following polymer materials addition. Science of The Total Environment. 2021. 765. 142750.
  • H. Wu, T. Tang, F. Zhu, X. Wei, W. Hartley, S. Xue. Long term natural restoration creates soil‐like microbial communities in bauxite residue: A 50‐year filed study. Land Degradation & Development. 2021. 32. 1606-1617.
  • W. Ke, X. Zhang, F. Zhu, H. Wu, Y. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Hartley, S. Xue. Appropriate human intervention stimulates the development of microbial communities and soil formation at a long-term weathered bauxite residue disposal area. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021. 405. 124689.
  • S. Xue, W. Ke, F. Zhu, J. Fan, Q. Wang, Z. Liu, W. Hartley. Evaluating aggregate stability, surface properties and disintegration behavior of bauxite residue induced by Ca/Na. Land Degradation & Development. 2021. 32. 803-816.
  • H. Wu, L. Chen, F. Zhu, W. Hartley. Y. Zhang, S. Xue. The dynamic development of bacterial community following long-term weathering of bauxite residue. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2020. 90. 321-330.
  • T. Tian, Z. Liu, F. Zhu. W. Hartley, Y. Ye, S. Xue. Improvement of aggregate-associated organic carbon and its stability in bauxite residue by substrate amendment addition. Land Degradation & Development. 2020. 31. 2405-2416.
  • Y. Wu, M. Li, D. Fu, T. C. Santini, J. Jiang, W. Hartley, S. Xue. Simulation study for the formation of alkaline efflorescence on bauxite residue disposal areas following the phosphogypsum addition. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020. 262. 121266.
  • Q. Zheng, J. Hou, W. Hartley, L. Ren, M. Wang, S. Tu, W. Tan. As(III) adsorption on Fe-Mn binary oxides: are Fe and Mn oxides synergistic or antagonistic for arsenic removal? Chemical Engineering Journal. 2020. 389. 124470.
  • Q. Cheng, R. Xue, H. Wu, W. Hartley, Y. Zhang, L. Zhou, S. Xue. Ecological Stoichiometry of Microbial Biomass Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus on Bauxite Residue Disposal Areas Geomicrobiology Journal. 2020. 37. 467-474.
  • Y. Wu, M. Li, F. Zhu, W. Hartley, J. Liao, W. An, S. Xue. Jun Jiang. Variation on leaching behavior of caustic compounds in bauxite residue during dealkalization process. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2020. 92. 141-150.
  • S. Xue, W. Ke, F. Zhu, Y. Ye, Z. Liu, J. Fan, W. Hartley.  Effect of phosphogypsum and poultry manure on aggregate-associated alkaline characteristics in bauxite residue. Journal of Environmental Management. 2020. 256, 109981.
  • S. Xue, X. Jiang, C. Wu, W. Hartley, Z. Qian, X. Luo, W. Li. Microbial driven iron reduction affects arsenic transformation and transportation in soil-rice system. Environmental Pollution. 2020. 260, 114010.
  • Q. Zheng, J. Hou, W. Hartley, L. Ren, M. Wang, S. Tu, W. Tan. As(III) adsorption on Fe-Mn binary oxides: are Fe and Mn oxides synergistic or antagonistic for arsenic removal? Chemical Engineering Journal. 2020. 389, 124470
  • Q. Cheng, R. Xue, H. Wu, W. Hartley, Y. Zhang, L. Zhou, S. Xue. Ecological stoichiometry of microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on bauxite residue disposal areas. Geomicrobiology Journal. 2020. DOI: 10.1080/01490451.2020.1722768.
  • H. WuL. Chen, F. Zhu, W. Hartley, Y. Zhang, S. Xue. The dynamic development of bacterial community following long-term weathering of bauxite residue. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2020. 90, 321-330.
  • Y. Liu, F. Zhang, J. Hou, W. Hartley.  Peroxymonosulfate improves the activity and stability of manganese oxide for oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. CLEAN – Soil, Air, Water. 2019. DOI: 10.1002/clen.201900195.
  • B. Yang, G. Zha, W. Hartley, X. Kong, D. Liu, B. Xu, W. Jiang, X. Guo. Sustainable extraction of lead and re-use of valuable metals from lead rich secondary materials. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019. 219, 110-116.
  • T. Tian, J. Zhou, F. Zhu, Y. Ye, Y. Guo, W. Hartley, S. Xue. Effect of amendments on the leaching behavior of alkaline anions and metal ions in bauxite residue. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2019. 85, 74-81.
  • C. Wu, C. Li, J. Jiang, W. Hartley, X. Kong, Y. Wu, S. Xue.  Revealing the alkaline characteristic evolution of bauxite residue under biomass fermentation. Journal of Soils and Sediments. 2019.
  • X. Li, Y. Guo, F. Zhu, L. Huang, W. Hartley, Y. Li, X. Kong, S. Xue. Alkalinity stabilization behavior of bauxite residue: Ca-driving regulation characteristics of gypsum. Journal of Central South University. 2019.  26, 383-392.
  • X. Kong, C. Li, J. Jiang, L. Huang, W. Hartley, C. Wu, S. Xue. Improvement of alkaline electrochemical characteristics of bauxite residue amendment with organic acid and gypsum. Journal of Central South University. 2019. 26, 430-439.
  • S. Xue, Y. Wu, Y. Li, X. Kong, F. Zhu, W. Hartley, X. Li, Y. Ye. Industrial wastes applications for alkalinity regulation in bauxite residue: a comprehensive review. Journal of Central South University. 2019. 26, 268-288.
  • N. Huang, L. Tang, F. Zhu, C. Wu, W. Hartley, J. Zhou, S. Xue. Salt ions accumulation and distribution characteristics of pioneer plant species at a bauxite residue disposal area. Journal of Central South University. 2019. 26, 323-330.
  • X. Li, Y. Ye, S. Xue, J. Jiang, C. Wu, X. Kong, W. Hartley, Y. Li. Leaching optimization and dissolution behavior of alkaline anions in bauxite residue. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2018.  28, 1248-1255.
  • J. Liao, J. Jiang, S. Xue, C. Qingyu, H. Wu, R. Manikandan, W. Hartley, L. Huang. A novel acid-producing fungus isolated from bauxite residue: the potential to reduce the alkalinity. Geomicrobiology Journal. 2018. 35, 840-847.
  • J. Wang, S. Ye, S. Xue, W. Hartley, H. Wu, L. Shi. The physiological response of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. to lead stress and accumulation. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. 2018. 128, 11-14.
  • J. Hou, Z. Sha, W. Hartley, W. Tan, M. Wang, J. Xiong, Y. Li, Y. Ke, Y. Long, S. Xue. Enhanced oxidation of arsenite to arsenate using tuneable K+ concentration in the OMS-2 tunnel. Environmental Pollution. 2018. 238, 524-531.
  • F. Zhu, Q. Cheng, S. Xue, C. Li, W. Hartley, C. Wu, T. Tian. Influence of natural regeneration on fractal features of residue microaggregates in bauxite residue disposal areas. Land Degradation & Development. 2017. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2848
  • X. Kong, T. Tian, S. Xue, W. Hartley, L. Huang, C.Wu, C. Li. Development of alkaline electrochemical characteristics demonstrates soil formation in bauxite residue undergoing natural rehabilitation. Land Degradation & Development. 2017. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2836
  • F. Zhu, J. Hou, S. Xue, C. Wu, Q. Wang, W. Hartley. Vermicompost and Gypsum Amendments Improve Aggregate Formation In Bauxite Residue. Land Degradation & Development. 2017. 28, 2109–2120.
  • J. Hou, Y. Xiang, D. Zheng, Y. Li, S. Xue, C. Wu, W. Hartley, W. Tan. Morphology-Dependent Enhancement of Arsenite Oxidation to Arsenate on Birnessite-Type Manganese Oxide. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2017. 327, 235–243.
  • C. Wu, L. Huang, S. Xue, Y. Huang, W. Hartley, M. Cui, M.H. Wong. Arsenic sorption by red mud-modified biochar produced from rice straw. Environ Sci. Pollut. Res. DOI 10.1007/s11356-017-9466-7
  • S. Xue, L. Shia, C. Wu, H. Wu, Y. Qin, W. Pan, W. Hartley, M. Cui. Cadmium, lead, and arsenic contamination in paddy soils of a mining area and their exposure effects on human HEPG2 and keratinocyte cell-lines. Environmental Research. 2017. 156, 23-30.
  • W. Pan, C. Wu, Q. Wang, Z. Su, H. Zhou, A. K. C. Chung, W. Hartley, L. Ge. Effect of wetland plants and bacterial inoculation on dissipation of phenanthrene. International Journal of Phytoremediation. doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2017.1301877
  • C. Wu, L. Huang, S. Xue, W. Pan, Q. Zou, W. Hartley, J. Mo. Effect of arsenic on spatial pattern of radial oxygen loss and iron plaque formation in rice. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2017. 27, 413-419.
  • X. Kong, Y. Guo, S. Xue, W. Hartley, C. Wu, Y. Ye, Q. Cheng. Natural evolution of alkaline characteristics in bauxite residue. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017. 143, 224–230.
  • X. Kong, M. Li, S. Xue, W. Hartley, C. Chen, C. Wu, X. Li, Y. Li. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: conversion of its alkaline characteristics. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2017, 324, 382–390.
  • C. Wu, L. Huang, S. Xue, W. Pan, Q. Zou, W. Hartley, M. Wong. Oxic and anoxic conditions affect arsenic (As) accumulation and arsenite transporter expression in rice. Chemosphere. 2017. 168, 969–975.
  • C. Wu, Q. Wang, S. Xue, W. Pan, L. Lou, D. Li, W. Hartley. Do aeration conditions affect arsenic and phosphate accumulation and phosphate transporter expression in rice (Oryza sativa L.)? Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017. doi:10.1007/s11356-016-7976-3.
  • C. Wu, Q Zou, S. Xue, W. Pan, X. Yue, W. Hartley, L. Huang, J. Mo. Effect of silicate on arsenic fractionation in soils and its accumulation in rice plants. Chemosphere 2016. 165, 478-486.
  • F. Zhu, N. Huang, S. Xue, W. Hartley, Y. Li, Q. Zou. Effects of binding materials on microaggregate size distribution in bauxite residues. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016. doi:10.1007/s11356-016-7626-9
  • F. Zhu, X. Li, S. Xue, W. Hartley, C. Wu, F. Han.  Natural plant colonization improves the physical condition of bauxite residue over time. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016. doi:10.1007/s11356-016-7508-1
  • W. Hartley, P. Riby, J. Waterson.  Effects of three different biochars on aggregate stability, organic carbon mobility and micronutrient bioavailability. Journal of Environmental Management. 2016. 181, 770-778.
  • F. Zhu, J. Liao, S. Xue, W. Hartley, Q Zou, H. Wu.  Evaluation of aggregate microstructures following natural regeneration in bauxite residue as characterized by synchrotron-based X-ray micro-computed tomography. Science of the Total Environment 2016. 573, 155–163. doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.108.
  • F. Zhu, J. Zhou, S. Xue, W. Hartley, C. Wu, Y. Guo. Aging of bauxite residue in association of regeneration: a comparison of methods to determine aggregate stability & erosion resistance. Ecological Engineering. 2016. 92, 47 – 54.
  • S. Xue, X. Kong, F. Zhu, W. Hartley, X. Li, Y. Li. Proposal for management and alkalinity transformation of bauxite residue in China.  Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016. DOI 10.1007/s11356-016-6478-7.
  • C. Wu, Q. Zou, S. Xue, W.S. Pan, L. Huang, W. Hartley, J.Y. Mo, M.H. Wong. The effect of silicon on iron plaque formation and arsenic accumulation in rice genotypes with different radial oxygen loss (ROL).  Environmental Pollution. 2016. 212, 27-33.
  • F. Zhu, Y. Li, S. Xue, W. Hartley, H. Wu. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6172-9.
  • S. Xue, F. Zhu, C. Wu, J. Lei, W. Hartley, W. Pan. Effects of manganese on the microstructures of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., a manganese tolerant plant. International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2016. 18, 710-719.
  • F. Zhu, S. Xue, W. Hartley, L. Huang, C. Wu, X. Li.  Novel predictors of soil genesis following natural weathering processes of bauxite residues. 2015. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5537-9
  • S. Xue, F. Zhu, X. Kong, C. Wu, L. Huang, N. Huang, W. Hartley.  A review of the characterization and revegetation of bauxite residues (Red mud). 2015. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2015.  DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-4558-8.
  • W. Pan, C. Wu, S. Xue, W. Hartley.  Arsenic dynamics in the rhizosphere and its sequestration on rice roots as affected by root oxidation.  2014. Journal of Environmental Sciences 26: 1-9.
  • W. Hartley, N. M. Dickinson, P. Riby, B. Shutes. Sustainable ecological restoration of brownfield sites through engineering or managed natural attenuation? A case study from Northwest England. 2012.  Ecological Engineering 40: 70-79.
  • M. Scholz, Å. Hedmark, W. Hartley. Recent advances in sustainable multifunctional land and urban management in Europe: a review. 2012. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 55 (7), 833-854.
  • W. Hartley, P. Riby, N. M. Dickinson, B. Shutes, S. Sparke, M. Scholz. Planting woody crops on dredged contaminated sediment provides both positive and negative effects in terms of remediation. 2011. Environmental Pollution 159: 3416-3424.
  • N.M. Dickinson, W. Hartley. A. Black, C. Crook. Bioavailability of metals and arsenic on brownfield land: remediation or natural attenuation for risk minimization? 2011. Environmental Contamination - Health Risks, Bioavailability and Bioremediation. Ed. Wong M.H. Taylor and Francis. - accepted for publication
  • T. Vamerali, M. Bandiera, W. Hartley, P. Carletti, G. Mosca.  Assisted phytoremediation of mixed metal(loid)-polluted pyrite waste: Effects of foliar and substrate IBA application on fodder radish. 2011. Chemosphere 84: 213-219.
  • E. M.-Jiménez, L. Beesley, N. W. Lepp, N. M. Dickinson, W. Hartley, R. Clemente.  Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk.  2011.  Environmental Pollution 159: 3078-3085.
  • W. Hartley, N.M. Dickinson, P.Riby, J. Morton, E. Leese, N.W.Lepp.  Arsenic Mobility and Speciation in a Contaminated Urban Soil is Affected by Different Methods of Green Waste Compost Application. 2010. Environmental Pollution 158: 3560 – 3570.
  • W. Hartley, C. Wu, N. M. Dickinson, P. Riby, N. W. Lepp, M. H. Wong.  Mobility and bioavailability of arsenic in flooded industrially polluted UK soils. 2010. Land Contamination and Reclamation. 18: 267 -278.
  • R. Clemente, W. Hartley, P. Riby, N. M. Dickinson, N. W. Lepp. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a green waste compost mulch. 2010. Environmental Pollution 158: 1644 – 1651.
  • W. Hartley, N.M. Dickinson.  Exposure of an anoxic and contaminated canal sediment: mobility of metal(loid)s. 2010. Environmental Pollution 158: 649-657.
  • W. Hartley, N.M. Dickinson, P. Riby, N.W. Lepp.  Arsenic mobility in brownfield soils amended with green waste compost or biochar and planted with Miscanthus. 2009. Environmental Pollution 157: 2654 – 2662.
  • W. Hartley, N.M. Dickinson, R. Clemente, C. French, T. G. Piearce, S. Sparke, N.W. Lepp.  Arsenic stability and mobilization in soil at an amenity grassland overlying chemical waste (St. Helens, UK). 2009. Environmental Pollution 157: 847-856.
  • W. Hartley, L.A. Uffindell, A.N. Plumb, H.A. Rawlinson, P. Putwain, N.M. Dickinson.  Assessing biological indicators for remediated anthropogenic urban soils. 2008. Science of the Total Environment 405: 358-369.
  • W. Hartley and N.W. Lepp.  Effect of in situ soil amendments on metal uptake in successive harvests of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv Elka) grown in amended As-polluted soils. 2008. Environmental Pollution 156: 1030-1040.
  • W. Hartley and N.W. Lepp.  Remediation of Arsenic Contaminated Soils By Iron-Oxide Application, Evaluated In Terms of Plant Productivity, Arsenic and Phytotoxic Metal Uptake. 2008. Science of the Total Environment 390: 35-44.
  • N. M. Dickinson, W. Hartley, L.A. Uffindell, A.N. Plumb, H. Rawlinson, P.D. Putwain.  Robust biological descriptors of soil health for use in reclamation of brownfield land. 2005. Land Contamination and Reclamation. 13: 317-326.
  • W. Hartley, R. Edwards, N.W. Lepp. Arsenic and Heavy Metal Mobility in Iron Oxide-Amended Contaminated Soils as Evaluated by Short and Long-Term Leaching Tests. 2004.  Environmental Pollution. 131: 495-504.
  • N.M. Dickinson, R. King, A. Royle, I.D. Pulford, W. Hartley, J. Jones, E. Gray-Jones, P.D. Putwain. Modelling Contamination in an Urban Canal Sediment: Some Preliminary Results from a Phytoremediation Project. 2004.  Developments in Ecosystems. Ed. Wong M.H.  Elsevier pp131-141.